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NASA Logo Langley Research Center Workshop

CFD Validation of Synthetic Jets
and Turbulent Separation Control
 
March 29-31, 2004
Woodlands Hotel and Conference Center
Colonial Williamsburg
Williamsburg, Virginia, USA

Local Organization: Thomas Gatski, Christopher Rumsey


 

Summary of Results from the Workshop and List of Publications

Summaries of the results from the workshop are given here in several forms.
First, a volume of contributed writeups, submitted by each of the workshop participants, is given. These writeups detail both the methods employed in computing the CFD results, as well as the experiments themselves. It is important to note that contributors were allowed to correct, change, update, or withdraw their submissions in the month following the workshop. This volume of contributed writeups does not reflect these changes. It is the same volume given out to the participants at the workshop.
Second, detailed results are given in several files. There is a file containing tables describing all of the submissions, the grids used, etc. There are also six separate files of summary plots, two for each test case. The table and summary plots account for any updated/withdrawn results from the month following the workshop. Every effort has been made to provide an accurate compilation of the data. Any omissions or mistakes are unintentional.
Third, the summary paper AIAA-2004-2217, presented at the 2nd Flow Control Conference in Portland OR in June-July 2004, is given. This paper is an overall summary of the CFD results from CFDVAL2004. Also, a second survey paper AIAA-2008-4311, presented at the 4th Flow Control Conference in Seattle WA in June 2008, is given.
Fourth, two Powerpoint slide presentations are given. The first summarizes both the CFDVAL2004 workshop results as well as hump model (Case 3) results from a subsequent ERCOFTAC/IAHR workshop held in Sweden in April 2005. The second goes along with the AIAA-2008-4311 paper.
Finally, a list of known publications related to this workshop is provided.

 

Files:

    Writeups:

  • nasacp-2007-214874cfdval.pdf ...Pdf volume of contributed papers, NASA/CP-2007-214874, April 2007 (8.0 MB)

  •  

    Detailed results:

  • tables.pdf ...Pdf tables describing all of the submissions (includes updates through May 2004) (213 kB), updated 10 June 2004
  • case1figsonly.pdf ...Pdf summary plots of Case 1 results (includes updates through May 2004) (5.0 MB)
  • case1contoursonly.pdf ...Pdf contour plots submitted by Case 1 participants (includes updates through May 2004) (9.6 MB)
  • case2figsonly.pdf ...Pdf summary plots of Case 2 results (includes updates through May 2004) (3.3 MB)
  • case2contoursonly.pdf ...Pdf contour plots submitted by Case 2 participants (includes updates through May 2004) (3.6 MB)
  • case3figsonly.pdf ...Pdf summary plots of Case 3 results (includes updates through May 2004) (4.9 MB)
  • case3streamlinesonly.pdf ...Pdf streamline plots submitted by Case 3 participants (includes updates through May 2004) (1.9 MB)

  •  

    Summary Papers:

  • AIAA-2004-2217.pdf ...Pdf summary paper from AIAA conference (2.4 MB) (later became journal article, with some modifications: AIAA J, 44(2), 2006, pp. 194-207)
  • AIAA-2008-4311.pdf ...Pdf survey paper from AIAA conference on CFDVAL2004 case results that were published after the workshop (2.7 MB)
     

    Powerpoint Slides:

    Summary slides of 3 cases from CFDVAL2004 workshop and hump results from 11th ERCOFTAC/IAHR turbulence modeling workshop:

  • summary_incl_sweden.ppt ...ppt summary slides (4.9 MB), posted 8/17/05
  • summary_incl_sweden.pdf ...same thing in pdf format (3.8 MB), posted 6/30/06
  • Slides of survey of published CFDVAL2004 results that have come out after the workshop (goes along with AIAA-2008-4311):

  • Seattle_08_flowcontrol.ppt ...ppt summary slides (2.4 MB), posted 7/17/08
  • Seattle_08_flowcontrol.pdf ...same thing in pdf format (2.8 MB), posted 7/17/08

 

List of known publications that resulted directly from the Workshop, or later made use of the Workshop cases:

(Please e-mail to Page Curator if you have other publications that we missed)

    Multiple cases:

  • Rumsey, C. L., Gatski, T. B., Sellers, W. L., Vatsa, V. N., Viken, S. A., "Summary of the 2004 CFD Validation Workshop on Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control," AIAA 2004-2217, June-July 2004. (Summary of all cases)
  • Iaccarino, G., Marongiu, C., Catalano, P., Amato, M., "RANS Modeling and Simulations of Synthetic Jets," AIAA 2004-2223, June-July 2004. (Case 2 and 3)
  • Rumsey, C. L., Gatski, T. B., Sellers, W. L., Vatsa, V. N., Viken, S. A., "Summary of the 2004 Computational Fluid Dynamics Validation Workshop on Synthetic Jets," AIAA Journal, Vol. 44, No. 2, February 2006, pp. 194-207. (Summary of all cases)
  • Rumsey, C. L., "Successes and Challenges for Flow Control Simulations (Invited)," AIAA 2008-4311, June 2008. (Survey of CFDVAL2004 case results that were published after the workshop)
  • Rumsey, C. L., Swanson, R. C., "Turbulence Modelling for Active Flow Control Applications," International Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 23, No. 4, April-May 2009, pp. 317-326. (A few selected case 2 and case 3 results)
  • Rumsey, C. L., "Successes and Challenges for Flow Control Simulations," International Journal of Flow Control, Vol. 1, No. 1, March 2009, pp. 1-27. (Survey of CFDVAL2004 case results that were published after the workshop)
  • Adya, S., Han, D., Hosder, S., "Uncertainty Quantification Integrated to the CFD Modeling of Synthetic Jet Actuators," AIAA 2010-4411, June 2010. (Case 1 and 3)
     

    Case 1 (Synthetic jet out of narrow slot into quiescent air):

    Case 1 Experiment:

  • Yao, C.-S., Chen, F. J., Neuhart, D., Harris, J., "Synthetic Jet Flow Database for CFD Validation," AIAA 2004-2218, June-July 2004.
  • Yao, C.-S., Chen, F. J., and Neuhart, D., "Synthetic Jet Flowfield Database for Computational Fluid Dynamics Validation," AIAA Journal, Vol. 44, No. 12, December 2006, pp. 3153-3157.

    Case 1 CFD:

  • Cui, J., Agarwal, R. K., "3D CFD Validation of a Synthetic Jet in Quiescent Air (NASA Langley Workshop Validation: Case 1)", AIAA 2004-2222, June-July 2004.
  • Vatsa, V. N., Turkel, E., "Simulation of Synthetic Jets in Quiescent Air Using Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations," AIAA 2004-4967, August 2004.
  • Yamaleev, N. K., Carpenter, M. H., "A Quasi-1-D Model for Arbitrary 3-D Synthetic Jet Actuators," AIAA 2005-0643, January 2005.
  • Kotapati, R. B., Mittal, R., "Time-Accurate Three-Dimensional Simulations of Synthetic Jets in Quiescent Air," AIAA 2005-0103, January 2005.
  • Vatsa, V., Carpenter, M., "Higher-Order Temporal Schemes with Error Controllers for Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations," AIAA 2005-5245, June 2005.
  • Xia, H. and Qin, N., "Dynamic Grid and Unsteady Boundary Conditions for Synthetic Jet Flow," AIAA 2005-0106, January 2005.
  • Yamaleev, N. K., Carpenter, M. H., "Quasi-one-Dimensional Model for Realistic Three-Dimensional Synthetic Jet Actuators," AIAA Journal, Vol. 44, No. 2, February 2006, pp. 208-216.
  • Vatsa, V. N., Turkel, E., "Simulation of Synthetic Jets Using Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations," AIAA Journal, Vol. 44, No. 2, February 2006, pp. 217-224.
  • Carpy, S., Manceau, R., "Turbulence Modelling of Statistically Periodic Flows: Synthetic Jet into Quiescent Air," Int. Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2006, pp. 756-767.
  • Xia, H. and Qin, N., "Comparison of Unsteady Laminar and DES Solutions of Synthetic Jet Flow," AIAA 2006-3161, June 2006.
  • Cui, J. and Agarwal, R. K., "Three-Dimensional Computation of a Synthetic Jet in Quiescent Air," AIAA Journal, Vol. 44, No. 12, December 2006, pp. 2857-2865.
  • Park, S. H., Yu, Y. H., Byun, D. Y., "RANS Simulations of a Synthetic Jet in Quiescent Air," AIAA 2007-1131, January 2007.
  • Kotapati, R. B., Mittal, R., Cattafesta, L. N. III, "Numerical Study of a Transitional Synthetic Jet in Quiescent External Flow," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 581, 2007, pp. 287-321.
  • Zhang, P. F., Wang, J. J., "Novel Signal Wave Pattern for Efficient Synthetic Jet Generation," AIAA Journal, Vol. 45, No. 5, May 2007, pp. 1058-1065.
  • Xia, H. and Qin, N., "DES Applied to an Isolated Synthetic Jet Flow," in Advances in Hybrid RANS-LES Modelling, Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design, Vol. 97, S.-H. Peng and W. Haase (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2008, pp. 252-260.
  • Adya, S., Han, D., and Hosder, S., "Uncertainty Quantification Integrated to CFD Modeling of Synthetic Jet Actuators," International Journal of Flow Control, Vol. 2, No. 3, September 2010, pp. 169-181.
     

    Case 2 (Synthetic jet out of circular orifice into crossflow turbulent boundary layer):

    Case 2 Experiment:

  • Schaeffler, N. W., Jenkins, L. N., "The Isolated Synthetic Jet in Crossflow: A Benchmark for Flow Control Simulation," AIAA 2004-2219, June-July 2004.
  • Schaeffler, N. W., Jenkins, L. N., "Isolated Synthetic Jet in Crossflow: Experimental Protocols for a Validation Dataset," AIAA Journal, Vol. 44, No. 12, December 2006, pp. 2846-2856.

    Case 2 CFD:

  • Rumsey, C. L., "Computation of a Synthetic Jet in a Turbulent Cross-Flow Boundary Layer," NASA/TM-2004-213273, October 2004. Link to NASA Technical Report Server.
  • Cui, J., Agarwal, R. K., "3-D CFD Validation of an Axisymmetric Jet in Cross-Flow (NASA Langley Workshop Validation: Case 2)", AIAA 2005-1112, January 2005.
  • Rumsey, C. L., Schaeffler, N. W., Milanovic, I. M., Zaman, K. B. M. Q., "Time-Accurate Computations of Isolated Circular Synthetic Jets in Crossflow," AIAA 2005-5016, June 2005.
  • Biedron, R., Vatsa, V., Atkins, H., "Simulation of Unsteady Flows Using an Unstructured Navier-Stokes Solver on Moving and Stationary Grids," AIAA 2005-5093, June 2005.
  • Xia, H., Qin, N., "Detached-Eddy Simulation for Synthetic Jets with Moving Boundaries," Modern Physics Letters B, Vol. 19, Nos. 28-29, 2005, pp. 1429-1434.
  • Dandois, J., Garnier, E., Sagaut, P., "Unsteady Simulation of Synthetic Jet in a Crossflow," AIAA Journal, Vol. 44, No. 2, February 2006, pp. 225-238.
  • Rumsey, C. L., Schaeffler, N. W., Milanovic, I. M., and Zaman, K. B. M. Q., "Time-Accurate Computations of Isolated Circular Synthetic Jets in Crossflow," Computers & Fluids, Vol. 36, No. 6, 2007, pp. 1092--1105.
     

    Case 3 (2-D Hump model with no flow control, steady suction, and synthetic jet control):

    Case 3 Related Websites:

  • ERCOFTAC Database (Classic Collection) Case C.83
  • 11th ERCOFTAC/IAHR Workshop on Refined Turbulence Modelling
  • 12th ERCOFTAC/IAHR Workshop on Refined Turbulence Modelling
  • V&V I: Code Verification and Solution Verification & Validation Workshop at ECCOMAS CFD 2010
  • Advanced Turbulence Simulation for Aerodynamic Application (ATAAC)

    Case 3 Experiment:

  • Greenblatt, D., Paschal, K. B., Yao, C.-S., Harris, J., Schaeffler, N. W., Washburn, A. E., "A Separation Control CFD Validation Test Case, Part 1: Baseline and Steady Suction," AIAA 2004-2220, June-July 2004.
  • Greenblatt, D., Paschal, K. B., Yao, C.-S., Harris, J., "A Separation Control CFD Validation Test Case, Part 2: Zero Efflux Oscillatory Blowing," AIAA 2005-0485, January 2005.
  • Naughton, J. W., Viken, S. A., Greenblatt, D., "Wall Shear Stress Measurements on the NASA Hump Model for CFD Validation," AIAA 2004-2607, June-July 2004.
  • Greenblatt, D., Paschal, K. B., Yao, C.-S., Harris, J., Schaeffler, N. W., Washburn, A. E., "Experimental Investigation of Separation Control Part 1: Baseline and Steady Suction," AIAA Journal, Vol. 44, No. 12, December 2006, pp. 2820-2830.
  • Greenblatt, D., Paschal, K. B., Yao, C.-S., Harris, J., "Experimental Investigation of Separation Control Part 2: Zero Mass-Efflux Oscillatory Blowing," AIAA Journal, Vol. 44, No. 12, December 2006, pp. 2831-2845.
  • Naughton, J. W., Viken, S., Greenblatt, D., "Skin-Friction Measurements on the NASA Hump Model," AIAA Journal, Vol. 44, No. 6, June 2006, pp. 1255-1265.
  • Aditjandra, A., Trosin, B. J., Naguib, A. M., "Array Measurements of the Surface Pressure Beneath a Forced Axi-Symmetric Separation Bubble," Exp Fluids, Vol. 46, 2009, pp. 297-308. (Uses hump model in a related experimental effort.)
  • Kale, N. V., Dutton, J. C., Elliott, G. S., "Separation Flow Control on a Wall-Mounted Hump Using Pneumatically Enhanced/Deployed Actuators," AIAA 2012-0744, January 2012. (Uses hump model in a related experimental effort.)

    Case 3 CFD:

  • Morgan, P. E., Rizzetta, D. P., Visbal, M. R., "Numerical Investigation of Separation Control for Flow Over a Wall Mounted Hump," AIAA 2004-2510, June-July 2004.
  • Krishnan, V., Squires, K. D., Forsythe, J. R., "Prediction of Separated Flow Characteristics over a Hump using RANS and DES," AIAA 2004-2224, June-July 2004.
  • Israel, D. M., Postl, D., Fasel, H. F., "A Flow Simulation Methodology for Analysis of Coherent Structures and Flow Control," AIAA 2004-2225, June-July 2004.
  • Morgan, P. E., Rizzetta, D. P., Visbal, M. R., "Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow Over a Wall-Mounted Hump," AIAA 2005-0484, January 2005.
  • Balakumar, P., "Computations of Flow over a Hump Model Using Higher Order Method with Turbulence Modeling," AIAA 2005-1270, January 2005.
  • Cui, J., Agarwal, R. K., "CFD Validation of Turbulent Separation Control on a 2D Hump (NASA Langley Workshop Validation: Case 3)," AIAA 2005-5013, June 2005.
  • Capizzano, F., Catalano, P., Marongiu, C., Vitagliano, P. L., "U-RANS Modelling of Turbulent Flows Controlled by Synthetic Jets," AIAA 2005-5015, June 2005.
  • Morgan, P. E., Rizzetta, D. P., Visbal, M. R., "Large-Eddy Simulation of Separation Control for Flow Over a Wall-Mounted Hump," AIAA 2005-5017, June 2005.
  • You, D., Wang, M., Moin, P., "Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow over a Wall-Mounted Hump with Separation Control," Annual Research Briefs 2005, Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, 2005.
  • Saric, S., Jakirlic, S., Tropea, C., "Computational Analysis of Locally Forced Flow over a Wall-Mounted Hump at High-Re Number," Proc. of 4th Int. Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, Williamsburg, USA, June 27-29, 2005, vol. 3, pp. 1189-1194.
  • Rumsey, C., "Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Analysis of Zero Efflux Flow Control over a Hump Model," AIAA 2006-1114, January 2006.
  • Morgan, P. E., Rizzetta, D. P., Visbal, M. R., "High-Order Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow over a Wall-Mounted Hump," AIAA Journal, Vol. 44, No. 2, February 2006, pp. 239-251.
  • Krishnan, V., Squires, K. D., Forsythe, J. R., "Prediction of Separated Flow Characteristics over a Hump," AIAA Journal, Vol. 44, No. 2, February 2006, pp. 252-262.
  • Postl, D., Fasel, H. F., "Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow Separation from a Wall-Mounted Hump," AIAA Journal, Vol. 44, No. 2, February 2006, pp. 263-272.
  • Hiller, S. J., Seitz, P. A., "The Interaction Between a Fluidic Actuator and Main Flow Using SAS Turbulence Modeling," AIAA 2006-3678, June 2006.
  • Biswas, D., "Studies on Separation Control CFD Validation Test Case Based on a Higher Order LES Model," AIAA 2006-3684, June 2006.
  • Saric, S., Jakirlic, S., Djugum, A., Tropea, C., "Computational Analysis of a Locally Forced Flow over a Wall-Mounted Hump at High-Re Number," Int. Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2006, pp. 707-720.
  • You, D., Wang, M., Moin, P., "Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow over a Wall-Mounted Hump with Separation Control," AIAA Journal, Vol. 44, No. 11, November 2006, pp. 2571-2577.
  • Johansson, T. G. and Davidson, L., "11th ERCOFTAC Workshop on Refined Turbulence Modelling," ERCOFTAC Bulletin, Vol. 69, 2006, pp. 28--34.
  • Bettini, C., Cravero, C., "Computational Analysis of Flow Separation Control for the Flow Over a Wall-Mounted Hump Using a Synthetic Jet," AIAA 2007-0516, January 2007.
  • He, C., Corke, T. C., Patel, M. P., "Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Plasma Flow Control Over a Hump Model," AIAA 2007-0935, January 2007 (includes additional experiment and CFD using plasma flow control).
  • Rumsey, C., "Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Analysis of Zero Efflux Flow Control over a Hump Model," Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2007, pp. 444--452.
  • Morgan, P. E., Rizzetta, D. P., Visbal, M. R., "Large-Eddy Simulation of Separation Control for Flow Over a Wall-Mounted Hump," AIAA Journal, Vol. 45, No. 11, November 2007, pp. 2643-2660.
  • Madugundi, D., Nagib, H., Kiedaisch, J., "Evaluation of Turbulence Models Through Prediction of Separated Flows with and without Flow Control and Circulation Effects," AIAA 2008-0567, January 2008.
  • Franck, J. A., Colonius, T., "Large-Eddy Simulation of Separation Control for Compressible Flow over a Wall-Mounted Hump," AIAA 2008-0555, January 2008.
  • Rumsey, C. L. and Greenblatt, D., "Flow Control Predictions Using URANS Modeling: A Parametric Study," 5th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena (TSFP-5), Volume 2, ed. R Friedrich, N. A. Adams, J. K. Eaton, J. A. C. Humphrey, N. Kasagi, M. A. Leschziner, August 2007, Garching Germany, pp. 591-596.
  • Rumsey, C. L. and Greenblatt, D., "Parametric Study of Flow Control Over a Hump Model Using an Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Code," NASA/TM-2007-214897, September 2007. Link to NASA Technical Report Server.
  • Thiele, F. and Jakirlic, S., "12th ERCOFTAC/IAHR/COST Workshop on Refined Turbulence Modelling," ERCOFTAC Bulletin, Vol. 75, December 2007, pp. 5-10.
  • Noelting, S., Wessels, M., Keating, A., Satti, R., Li, Y., Shock, R., "Lattice Boltzmann Simulations of the Flow over a Hump with Flow Control," AIAA 2008-6721, August 2008.
  • Yeshala, N., Min, B.-Y., and Sankar, L. N., "Drag Reduction Studies Using Active Flow Control," AIAA 2008-3870, June 2008.
  • Yoshio, M. and Abe, K., "Performance of Reynolds-Averaged Turbulence Models for Unsteady Separated Flows with Periodic Blowing and Suction," Proceedings of 18th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena, Daejeon, Korea, pp. 1359-1366, 2007. Link to summary of this paper.
  • Saric, S., Kniesner, B., Mehdizadeh, A., Jakirlic, S., Hanjalic, K., and Tropea, C., "Comparative Assessment of Hybrid LES/RANS Models in Turbulent Flows Separating from Smooth Surfaces," in Advances in Hybrid RANS-LES Modelling, Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design, Vol. 97, S.-H. Peng and W. Haase (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2008, pp. 142-151.
  • Kniesner, B. and Jakirlic, S., "Interface Issues in LES/RANS Coupling Strategies: Location, Variables Exchange and Turbulence Level Adustment," 8th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM8) and 5th European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering (ECCOMAS 2008), June-July 2008, Venice, Italy.
  • Gan, S., Ghia, U., Ghia, K., "Active Separation Control of Flow Over a Wall-Mounted Hump Using Zero-Efflux Synthetic Jet," Paper no. IMECE2008-69137, ASME 2008 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE2008), Volume 10: Heat Transfer, Fluid Flows, and Thermal Systems, Parts A, B, and C, Boston, Massachusetts, Oct 31 - Nov 6, 2008, pp. 959-967.
  • Corson, D., Jaiman, R., Shakib, F., "Industrial Application of RANS Modelling: Capabilities and Needs," International Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 23, No. 4, April-May 2009, pp. 337-347.
  • Franck, J. A., Colonius, T., "Oscillatory Control and the Effects of Actuation Frequency on a Wall-Mounted Hump," AIAA 2009-4019, June 2009.
  • Krechetnikov, R., Marsden, J. E., Nagib, H. M., "A Low-Dimensional Model of Separation Bubbles," Physica D, Vol. 238, 2009, pp. 1152-1160.
  • Avdis, A., Lardeau, S., Leschziner, M., "Large Eddy Simulation of Separated Flow over a Two-dimensional Hump with and without Control by Means of a Synthetic Slot-jet," Flow Turbulence Combust, Vol. 83, 2009, pp. 343-370.
  • Rumsey, C. L. and Greenblatt, D., "Flow Control Predictions Using Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Modeling: A Parametric Study," AIAA Journal, Vol. 47, No. 9, September 2009, pp. 2259-2262.
  • Lyons, D. C., Peltier, L. J., Zajaczkowski, F. J., and Paterson, E. G., "Assessment of DES Models for Separated Flow From a Hump in a Turbulent Boundary Layer," Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 131, November 2009, 111203.
  • Franck, J. A., Colonius, T., "Compressible Large-Eddy Simulation of Separation Control on a Wall-Mounted Hump," AIAA Journal, Vol. 48, No. 6, June 2010, pp. 1098-1107.
  • Davidson, L., Peng, S.-H., "Embedded LES Using PANS," AIAA 2011-3108, June 2011.
  • Menter, F. R., Schutze, J., Kurbatskii, K. A., Gritskevich, M., Garbaruk, A., "Scale-Resolving Simulation Techniques in Industrial CFD," AIAA 2011-3474, June 2011.
  • Han, D. and Hosder, S., "Inherent and Model-Form Uncertainty Analysis for CFD Simulation of Synthetic Jet Actuators," AIAA 2012-0082, January 2012.
  • Gritskevich, M. S., Garbaruk, A. V., Schutze, J., Menter, F. R., "Development of DDES and IDDES Formulations for the k-omega Shear Stress Transport Model," Flow Turbulence Combust, Vol. 88, 2012, pp. 431-449, DOI 10.1007/s10494-011-9378-4.
  • Davidson, L., "The PANS k-e Model in a Zonal Hybrid RANS-LES Formulation," International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol. 46, 2014, pp. 112-126.
  • Franck, J. A., Colonius, T., "Effects of Actuation Frequency on Flow Control Applied to a Wall-Mounted Hump," AIAA Journal, Vol. 50, No. 7, July 2012, pp. 1631-1634.
 
 
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